This research project analyzes gender-based violence in cross-border fish trade in the GLR using a human rights perspective. A human rights perspective provides an understanding of the socio-economic conditions facing women fishers in the GLR. Expanding on established research on fishing rights of marginalized people, this analysis highlights human rights issues that have been less documented: gender-based cross-border violence and threats to personal security in the GLR. Policy research on how to incorporate human rights standards into fisheries governance has so far narrowly focused on access rights of marginalized people to their traditional fishing grounds. However, this narrow focus needs to be complemented by efforts to advance human rights in fishing communities more broadly. Assessments of vulnerability in African fishing communities indicate that access to fisheries resources is not the main concern. Rather, security was cited as the main challenge. Over and above this general concern, women fishers have security issues that are specific to their circumstances. This paper argues that failure to address these issues, along with other dimensions of women fishers vulnerabilities, undermines all attempts to improve small-scale fisheries performance and environmental sustainability in the GLR. For women fishers faced with such multiple sources of vulnerability, their willingness to engage in resource management and environmental sustainability depends critically on addressing their more immediate concern of freedom from violence. Vulnerable people whose human rights are routinely violated dont make effective guardians of environmental stewards. Hence, addressing the issue of human rights makes resource management easier and more likely to succeed.