Fish is one of the leading export commodities for Africa, with an annual export value of 14 billion USD. However, many African nations lack the capacity to utilize their aquatic assets while simultaneously protecting them from degradation and overuse. The full economic and social benefits of the fish trade have yet to reach its full potential. Without an adequate governance structure, fisheries and the fish trade will not be adequately safeguarded for the benefit of future generations. The effects of climate change which may modify the habitats, distribution and productivity of marine species is a factor that is becoming of increasing importance. The NEPAD Agency's two Fisheries Governance and Trade Programmes work to encourage African countries to consider and implement policies and governance reforms aimed at improving the productivity, profitability and sustainability of Africa's fisheries and the welfare benefits provided by this sector.