Lake Victoria supports the worlds largest freshwater fishery which employs over 1 million people, and provides the regions most inexpensive source of dietary protein. Unfortunately, eutrophication and climate change are threatening critical ecosystem services, though the precise impact of these stressors is not clear. Remotely-sensed satellite data is well suited to fill large knowledge gaps and help stakeholders monitor and track ecosystem changes in this and other African Great Lakes. Despite the obvious benefits, satellite remote-sensing has barely been applied in this region of the world. This research_provides an overview of the satellite record over Lake Victoria (1998-2016) with an emphasis on water quality measurements (phytoplankton biomass, transparency). Decadal scale trends and correspondence to global-scale climate oscillations (e.g., El-Nino) are analyzed and presented. This research also examines the two scientific challenges that must be met in order to improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed data; namely atmospheric correction and inversion of remotely-sensed reflectance into bio-optical parameters. Since 2005 a NASA AERONET site on the shore of Lake Victoria has been providing daily aerosol measurements. Here researchers compare the accuracy of multiple atmospheric correction algorithms against the AERONET measurements, and discuss the validity of the Generalized Optical Inherent Properties (GIOP) algorithm using extant datasets.